In many types of people’s physical activity, and in many kinds of sport in general, there is quite close connection between respiratory movements and body movements and its parts. In that case, the disturbance of this connection in some kinds of sport (swimming, rowing, etc.) leads to significant change of biomechanical structure of the movement itself.
On the one hand breathing pattern determines effectiveness of performing these movements, and on the other hand, respiratory movements (rhythm, frequency and depth) are organized in accordance with the biomechanics of the movement itself.
It is known, that the greatest muscular effort occurs when we hold breathing, a little less – during the exhalation, the least – during the inhalation. This fact explains why sportsmen do try to combine inhaling with power stages of a competitive movement in many kinds of sport. It is also known that the growth of physical exercise intensity, especially in cyclic kinds of sport, complicates volitional breathing control. The combination of breathing phases with movements can be conditionally characterized as “anatomic” and “biomechanical” ways of breathing.
Anatomic breathing method is realized in movements, where inhalation corresponds to chest capacity enlargement and exhalation causes chest capacity diminution (i.e. morning exercises, warming up exercises, etc.).
Biomechanical breathing method is realized in movements, where exhalation happens in the most muscle-strengthening exercises and inhalation – in relative relaxation stages. Thus, in rowing exhalation happens while paddling and inhalation – while pulling down.
Biomechanical method of breathing organization is used in such kinds of sport where the frequency of the movement is relatively low (rowing, swimming, skating, etc.). The higher movement frequency is the most difficult one to realize among all methods of breathing. It is known, that untrained expiratory muscles may “steal” up to 70% of inhaled oxygen from the muscles, used in motional act, decreasing effectiveness of its execution and effectiveness of the work of basic functional body systems.
Thus, appearance of “breathlessness” that attends heart rate increase and significant rise of the blood pressure while we are doing exercises, is connected with the reduction in a level of development of expiratory muscles.
Development of expiratory muscles force and endurance improves with their training. Exhalation with resistance to air flow can serve as a load.